What is Diabetes?
Diabetes, more commonly known as sugar diabetes, is a condition that affects the body due to a lack of insulin or the body's inability to use insulin properly. This hormone plays a crucial role in regulating blood sugar levels. The full medical term for diabetes is "diabetes mellitus," which literally means "profuse urination with sweet urine."
Types of diabetes
There are mainly two types of diabetes mellitus: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This type is commonly diagnosed in children and young adults.
Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, occurs when the body doesn't use insulin efficiently, a condition known as insulin resistance. This is the most common form of diabetes and usually affects adults, although it can also occur in children.
A third type, gestational diabetes, can occur during pregnancy and usually disappears after childbirth. However, women who have had gestational diabetes have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.
Symptoms and Diagnosis
The symptoms of diabetes mellitus vary, but may include increased thirst and hunger, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, blurred vision, slow healing of wounds, and frequent infections. It is important to see a doctor if you experience these symptoms.
A diagnosis of diabetes is usually confirmed through blood tests that measure blood sugar, including the fasting blood sugar test and the glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test.
Living with diabetes
Living with diabetes requires daily management and monitoring of blood sugar levels. You may need to inject insulin or take medications to help manage blood sugar. Diet and exercise also play an important role in managing this condition.
Patients with diabetes should have regular health checkups to prevent long-term complications such as cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, eye problems, and nerve damage.
Treatment of diabetes
While there is currently no cure for diabetes mellitus, the condition can be managed through a combination of medication, diet, exercise, and weight management.
Type 1 diabetes is usually treated with insulin injections, while Type 2 diabetes can often be managed with a combination of diet, exercise, and medication. In some cases, insulin may also be necessary for people with Type 2 diabetes. Ongoing medical follow-up is crucial for individuals with diabetes to detect and manage any complications early.